Socialisme ou Barbarisme (1948-1967)
One of the first groups on the French left to organise around the theme of self-management. Followed in 1966 by Autogestion et Socialisme set up by Yvon Bourdet which continued to experiment with libertarian socialism following Pannekoek, Luxemburg and Gramsci. After 1968 Autogestion became a more familiar theme in French left politics to the extent that the PCF incorporated it as one of their slogans in 1979, after decades of ideological hostility towards it.

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